Tibetan Rap Art
In ancient times when the Tibetan people did not have their own writing, they began to use oral rap to artistically reflect their lives, express their thoughts and feelings, impart production and life experience, and express aesthetic concepts and artistic tastes. In Tibetan areas, there are mainly the following ethnic rap art varieties:
① Ling Zhong, namely Gesar rap; ② Zhong He Zhonglu, namely rap story; ③ Gulu is the song of Tao; ④ Duiba Harmony Ba, namely praise and blessing; ⑤ Bai; ⑥ Lama Mani; ⑦ Folding Ga; ⑧ Zha Nian Playing and Singing; ⑨ Xia; ⑩ Tibetan crosstalk; There are also smaller ones such as armour, cover heat, and so on.
1. Ling Zhong
Among the many epics of Chinese ethnic minorities, Lingzhong, a long Tibetan rap epic produced between the 11th and 13th centuries, is the most famous, with the longest history and the most widely spread. This epic vividly reproduces the ancient Tibetan history, especially the history of tribal struggle. It is about a famous Tibetan hero in ancient times. In Tibet, from agricultural areas to pastoral areas, from towns to remote places, there are people who can tell some stories of Gesar more or less, and there are many folk artists who rap Gesar.
Through the wars between ancient Ling and Hall and other countries, the rap masterpiece "Ling Zhong" truly reflects the situation of separatist wars in Tibet in the 300 or 400 years after the collapse of the Tubo Dynasty and the deep and warm living conditions of the common people at that time. The epic depicts Gesar coming to the world in order to subjude the demons, restrain the strong and support the weak, so that the common people can live a peaceful life. Gesar fought many wars in his life, but these wars were to repel the invaders and to fight in self-defense.
"Ling Zhong" is also rare in art. It depicts hundreds of characters, each of which has a very distinct character and a lifelike image. The story is full of mythological features and romanticism. The language is not only exaggerated, but also very delicate. The whole rap is a treasure house of Tibetan vocabulary. The passage is full of narratives and songs, with a large number of passages in the form of "Lu" folk songs loved by the Tibetan people, and a large number of Tibetan proverbs and vivid metaphors. In fact, the whole rap epic is a collection of history, aesthetics, linguistics and singing art in a masterpiece.
"King Gesar Biography" Tibetans called "Gesar Zhong" or "Ling Zhong", that is, "The Story of Gesar". It is a heroic epic that is widely circulated among the Tibetan people and has a grand scale and structure. In all Tibetan areas, there are folk artists who specialize in rapping "Lingzhong". They are generally welcomed and loved by the masses. They are called "Zhongken", that is, those who rap "Gesar story. Some of them can say a few, some can say more than a dozen, some can say dozens of, say for a few days or dozens of days, this is the main form of "Lingzhong" spread. In addition, there are many manuscripts and some woodcuts handed down. There is no accurate number of a complete "Lingzhong" Gesar.
"Lingzhong" is not only popular in Tibetan areas, but also in Mongolian and Tujia areas in China, as well as the Mongolian People's Republic and the Buryat Autonomous Republic of the Soviet Union. Of course, the "Biography of King Gesar" circulated in these regions or countries is not only the same as the Tibetan "Biography of King Gesar", but also has some strong characteristics of the region and the nation.
2. Zhong He Zhonglu
Tibetans generally call the story "Zhong", while the song they sing when telling the story is called "Zhonglu", and the artist who rap the story is called "Zhongba". Tibetan farming and pastoral areas and urban masses, usually very like to listen to beautiful folk rap stories. Zhongba (rapper) has not only specialized rapper artists, but also craftsmen, farmers, herdsmen, wizards and lamas, old women twisting wool, elderly elders and young children. "Zhong He Zhonglu" includes folk tales mainly circulated orally, written stories directly from Buddhist scriptures, stories included in motto notes, stories about the history of Tibetan politics and religion, biographies of people, and historical stories involving Tibetan customs, among others.
There is "Guru" in the Dunhuang literature during the Budegongjie period, which proves that the rap art of "Guru" was popular in Tibetan society at that time, and in terms of age, it was much earlier than the "Lu" and "Zhuo" appeared in the 11th generation of Tubo Zanpudeschule recorded in the Book of Ladakh.
Gulu originally originated in the place where the first generation of Tubo Zanpu was established as the king of the "Six Gaas in the Snow Region" tribe, that is, "the gate of heaven and earth, the essence of Asia, surrounded by snow-capped mountains, the source of water, high mountains and beautiful waters, rich products, The wisdom and courage of the residents, and the multiplication of all living beings", known as the place of Yalong. According to Dunhuang documents, Gulu was used for language communication as late as the 6th century, so we can infer that Gulu was originally formed in Yalong for more than two thousand years. Later, after Buddhism was introduced into Tibet, Buddhists used "Gurlu" to promote Buddhist teachings, which made this folk rap art stained with religious color, especially since the Kagyu Lama Malba, Mirareba and so on, Gurlu was widely spread among the masters and apprentices of the Kagyu school. In the 15th century, after the "Venerable Mirazhba Guru" was arranged and woodcut by Mo Ruga in the year of Tibet, the Guru art created by lamas, Zen masters, yogis, etc. of various sects formed two tributaries of Guru with folk significance and Guru with religious significance, and spread throughout the snow-covered east, west, north and south.
With the later development of Tibetan society, many influential Gurlu monographs appeared, such as the Collection of Love Songs of the Supreme Dorona (1575-1633), Jimeiwangbu's Theory of Guru (1728-1791), and Dan Bai Zhunmei's Repaying Parents for Their kindness, chanting for the dead Gueryang of Nieni (1717-1786), "Xiuxin Guern the Voice of Brahma" (1708-1757), Gesang Gyatso's "Songgur Teachings", Hot Imposed Bugon's "Collection of Love Songs to Teach Tao" (Pabonggang), Zhuba Gongqin Baigar's "Collection of White Lotus Golden Steel Songs" and Appropriate Qiangba's "" and so on, one of the most prominent and famous is "His Holiness Mirazba Sunguru".
Mirariba's dharma name is Xieba Duoji, which means "Laugh King Kong". "Laugh" gives rise to the secret religious name of Mirariba. He often makes others laugh. When he introduces his life to his disciple Ri Qiongba, he takes this as a merit that can make people laugh. He explained that his laughter was the result of hard work. Mirariba has a great reputation. Zapuba, a Buddhist master in Zhen, was so jealous that he induced his concubine to put poison into the yogurt that Mira ate. Mira ended his life at the age of 83 (1123). Mirariba also had a great influence on later generations. More than 300 years after his death, Sang Jie Jian Shen (1452-1507), a descendant of the Chibachin royal family who belonged to the same family as his mother, revered Mira from an early age and took him as a model to devote himself to hard work. In order to expand the power of the Kagyu faction, he won over believers. He even risked his life to go to Ali, Gongbu and Tibet, collected, sorted and edited into a complete and well-known rap collection of "The Venerable Mira Jba Shengjie Gulu. This can be said to be the first rap book in the history of Tibet. Later, it was engraved in large quantities, making Mirazpah Guru a total of 61 chapters, 384 long and short Guru songs, 62 of which were sung by Mirazpah's followers, believers, benefactors and the "ghosts and gods" who came to harm. Guru prose and rhymes are both rich and tells many interesting stories.
With the further promotion of Gurlu rap, a series of eminent monks and great virtues of gurlu rap appeared in the history of Tibet, and a series of gurlu were written, such as Naloba (1016-1100, Indian patriarch of Kagyu Sect) and Dabo Kagyu Sect's founder Dabo Raj (real name Solang Renqing, after Marba (1012-1097), 1079~1153), Venerable Mirarepa (1040~1123), Rijongba (1084~1161), Qiongcangba, Maggie Ou Jiao, Xiang Shi Shi, Zhuo Var, Da Rexun Ren, Strong Color "Suolang Jienzan, Maggie Renma, etc.
4. Reiba Harmony Bar
At the beginning of the 6th century, the Yalong tribe, which lived in the Yalong River Valley in Shannan, Tibet, emerged. They successively merged neighboring tribes and gradually unified Tibet. By the beginning of the 7th century, a strong Tubo Dynasty was established. In 629, after Zanpu was succeeded by the Tibetan king Songzan Gampo, he quelled civil strife, established the capital Lhasa, founded writing, established various systems, consolidated the unified dynasty, and proposed to Nebramura and Tang Dynasty, and married Princess Chizun and Princess Wencheng. With the development of society, two other forms of rap art have emerged on the Tibetan Plateau, that is, "Duba Xiba", that is, "praise" and "hundred".
With regard to the historical records of "Xiaba", we can see a passionate hymn made by Tibetan King Chide Songzan (815-857) at the opening ceremony after the completion of Sangye Temple in the book "Ba Association. "Kumba" is also very popular in the folk. Just as far as the traditional Tibetan wedding ceremony is concerned, there are groom's praise, bride's praise, abba's praise, ma's praise, elders's praise, bridesmaid's praise, matchmaker's praise, house's praise, door's praise, room's column's praise, steps's praise, roof's praise, sutra's rod's praise, table's praise, porcelain cup's praise, wine's praise, chamazan's praise, gift's praise, wine's praise, fragrant tea's praise, guest's praise, etc. Praise is also a traditional folk custom rap form, its content includes historical narration, local conditions and customs, clothing, food, housing and transportation, various figures and so on. Zumba requires a vivid artistic representation of the history and current situation of the object to be praised. Singer rap is divided into stand-alone and group rap. Except for some fixed songs, rappers can improvise. Therefore, this form of rap art has also brought great influence to another Tibetan folk art variety "Folk Ga". The difference is that the rap of Folk Ga artists has not only these singers, there are also such things as praising snow mountains, praising plateaus, praising grasslands, praising gods, praising masters, praising spring water, praising hometown, praising parents, praising tents, praising war knives, praising birds and animals, praising bows and arrows, praising war horses, praising mountain rivers, praising relatives, praising saddles, praising cattle and sheep, praising mountain gods, praising life, etc.
And Reiba is also a folk rap art form formed in that period. It stands out from the folk songs and poems of the Tibetan people and forms its own unique style. The content of the celebration is also very rich, and it involves a wide range of life, involving dignitaries, living Buddhas, eminent monks, elders, relatives and friends, human affairs, cultural landscape, nature, astronomy and geography, real life, important festivals, and so on.
Reap Bah is usually in the form of recitation rap, with beautiful and smooth rhyme to wish its future prosperity and bright prospects. The celebration is also performed in stand-up and group or crowd, supplemented by corresponding tunes to render the atmosphere.
"Hundred" is the ancient Tibetan soldiers and Zhuang Wei song.
According to the "Wei-Zang Tongzhi" records: the regular army in Tibet was founded in 1729 (the 17th year of Qianlong in the Qing Dynasty). Before this, the local government of Tibet implemented a distribution system of "always distributing, and when there is war, it will be mobilized for the company. During the Tubo Dynasty, the entire Tibet region was centered on Lhasa and organized three military organizations called "Quru" (outer wing), "Pruru" (middle wing), and "Langru" (inner wing). In order to control the entire plateau more forcefully, the Tibetan king Songtsen Gampo formulated the administrative region and military system. Tubo's administrative region is divided into 18 major regions, with five such as Qin, each such as Qin is divided into upper and lower parts, a total of 10 parts, each part such as 4,000 households, plus 1,000 guards, a total of 5,000 households. The Tibetan king led soldiers, defeated the hostile forces at home and abroad, continuously expanded his territory and gradually became strong. Whenever there is a war, the local soldiers carry out Buddhist activities of offering sacrifices to heaven and gods before going out to war, and then rap loudly and go to war. This form of rap has continued from that time to this day. The main content of the hundred is also to show the ancient soldiers' battle emotions after the expedition or triumph. The soldiers praised their weapons and bravery.
6. Lama Mani
From the aspects of LamaMani's rap book, singing, costumes and props, LamaMani was formed in the soil of various folk arts such as religious rituals, such as rewarding ghosts and entertaining gods. In the long-term historical development process, through the efforts of countless folk rap artists and upper-level intellectuals to innovate, enrich and improve, it has formed today's art form, with its own rap bibliography and unique performance program.
Folk entertainers who rap lamaMani are called "lamaManiwa", "Maniba" or "Lokimba" (I. e., the good speaker). The origin of La Neba goes back to the monks who have accepted the lotus birth spell. As early as the first half of the 12th century, the Benton Jabba Dharma Sangge of the Bai ethnic group was ridiculed by a leader of the ethnic group, who asked him if he was the one who was in love with the mantra or the amami mantra (six-character mantra), because he had acquired the meaning of the amami mantra of the lotus. Shortly later, during the trip of Basiba to Mongolia (about 1253-1260), he was called Siddha (career achiever) Karmapaxi (1204 or 1206-1283, he traveled to Mongolia in 1255) as a Shiba. The Karmapa West has realized the will of the five families of Tuga women to arrange this kind of feat in all markets when practicing the righteous cause. All those who see and hear will be blessed by them. Therefore, after the discovery of the excavation, Nima Yuesse (1136-1203) and her disciples posted this on the street. Secondly, this kind of maniba has been greatly developed since the time when Gu Ru Kewang (1212-1273) wrote various kinds of nunes. Since then, the habit of maniba has spread. The rap book of the legend of Gu Ru Kewang describes how he tied a bell to the door and stove to remind his mother to say "Man" after he led her to the religious road. This custom can still be seen in many parts of Tibet today.
Gu Ruchewang's own life later became the rap book of Mani artists.
Tang Dongjiebu (1385~1464), a legendary figure in Tibetan folk after the 14th century, was a reformer and innovator of Lamamani and Tibetan opera. It was his efforts that led religious rituals such as the "Tram" from the temple to the people. Tang Dongjie Bu is determined to build bridges in various rivers in the snow area for the benefit of all living beings. He took great pains to raise funds for the construction of the iron cable bridge, and interspersed in this activity with the story of the Buddha's "native life" as the main content of the story of singing and Buddhist scriptures, and innovated a folk rap art "Lama Mani". This kind of folk rap art is not only different from singing folk songs, but also different from telling stories. It is also different from the featured drama. It is a kind of rap art with strong religious color. Its performance form is that a lama or nun hangs a scroll painting made of cloth or silk, which is painted with the serial images of God, Buddha's own life and biography, namely Lama Mani Thangka, singing stories in many fixed chanting tones, at the beginning, the end and the middle of the rap sentence, from time to time, the rapper inserts and recites the "six-character mantra". The rapper holds an iron bar and points out the content of the rap story one by one.
Lama Mani was born before the emergence of Tibetan opera, and its development is closely related to religion, while the content and form reflect the religious color is also very strong. Each of Lamamani's rap books was directly or indirectly related to the real life of the Tibetan people at that time, and had a large audience, while the literary books of these rap books had a wide range of readers.
Most of the rappers are alms or dervishes. They play very important religious and social roles. Some of them are famous in the world. In particular, the Nima Baluo family was surrounded by some secular believers and presented lanterns to the Panchen Lama during the Tibetan calendar year of 1669. In 1674, 1675 and 1669, the Panchen Lama regularly presided over the great dharma meetings of Mani and believers during the New Year.
In 1676, some mountain monks (hidden monks) and Maniba took advantage of this opportunity to "arrange a guarantee of longevity", which refers to offerings and auspicious hymns with wishes. In modern times, there are still some nabas that are very famous in society.
The total number of Lamamani's rap books is nearly 20. From the perspective of drawing materials, all these books can be divided into "Princess Wencheng and Princess of Nepal" and "The Venerable Mirarepa", which reflect historical legends; the mythical love story "Nosangfa King", which is adapted from folk tales; the myths and legends "Suji Nyima" and "Prince Sobajiu"; the children's theme "White Mavenba"; "Langsa Girl", which is directly based on real social life; "Zhuo Wasam" and "Dunyue Dunzhu", which reflect the state of the human world; religious stories "Gama Wangzeng Resurgence of Soul", "Gu Ruwang Prince", "Chimei Gonden", "The Story of the Blue Neck Bird", etc. In fact, the traditional eight Tibetan opera scripts have long been Lama Maniwa's rap bibliography, and today's Tibetan opera performance forms further illustrate this point.
"Zhiga" originally means folk artists who come to bless and sing praises during the New Year's festival and festive events. Their social status is very low. They usually carry five-color sticks, masks on their shoulders, and large wooden bowls to perform begging performances all over Tibet. They are articulate and have a beautiful language. They are a group of illiterate writers. They rap what they see and say what they think. They take all social life as the theme, rap the life, labor, love, struggle, joys and sorrows of the Tibetan people, as well as beautiful ideals. These rap artists are very mobile and can be seen and heard in any region of Tibet. In rap singing, they always boast and explain their sticks, bowls and whole masks, and then perform according to the different local conditions at that time.
8, Zha Nian playing and singing
Zha Nian Qin is a Tibetan plucked instrument with a long history. During the period of the Fifth Dalai Lama, the history and types of Zha Nian Qin, the structure of the strings and various techniques, were clearly recorded in "The Feast of Eyes and Ears" by Diba "Sangjie Gyatso, with a large number of Japanese Karlu (palace music) scores and literary scores played by Zha Nian Qin. In the frescoes of the Jokhang Temple, we can also see that as early as more than 1300 years ago, in the magnificent celebration scene of the Tibetan king Songzan Gangbo's Ten Good Dharma Book, there were three Zha Nian Qin playing. According to the records of the King of Ladakh, "the stars appeared in the morning at a very early age, and then the red light appeared. After that, the four-tone phenomenon and the year of the Prince's song period appeared".
The Tibetan language Riza Nian means "a pleasant sound". Zha Nian has eight-stringed harp, sixteen-stringed harp, twenty-stringed harp, six-stringed harp and other types. Among them, the six-stringed harp is the most common and famous, and is widely spread in all parts of Tibet and other Tibetan areas. The piano is about one meter long and has six twists. The playing part is as big as a human head and is wrapped in sheepskin and saddle. Zha Nian has a soft and pleasant tone, a light body, and can sit on the floor and sing and play with the piano wherever you go. Zhannian has a wide range of branches in Tibet. Zhannian can be seen in the upper part of Ali Sanwei to the middle part of the region, Shannan, Lhasa, Nyingchi and the lower part of Amdo. People hold the Zha Nian harp, play and sing, rap the beauty of their hometown, kind parents, the bitterness and joy of the world, the origin of the Zha Nian harp, etc. The singing content is basically the same between regions, but there are differences in playing styles.
9 and summer.
"Xia" can be literally understood as "duet songs" in Tibetan, or reciting and joking words to each other. It is a rap art in which at least two people chant or sing duet songs to each other during the New Year, wedding, house moving celebration and Wangguo Festival. It is mainly popular in Tibet Qamdo, Nyingchi, Shannan, Shigatse, Ali and Lhasa and other areas.
The origin of the summer can also be traced back to the Bon period when the artists who sang enigmatic songs recited to each other the carousel and the relative chanting of the wedding priests. Because it is mainly spread in the folk, has not been paid attention to by the officials and the aristocratic upper class, and its expression also focuses on secular life and entertainment, so after Buddhism was introduced and combined with Bon religion and flourished greatly, it was less influenced by Buddhist thought, but followed its own path and has been spread to this day.
Xia's performance is very flexible, usually at the beginning of "xiechin" (a form of singing and dancing in Tibet), the middle end of Tibetan opera, when weddings are held, etc. The specifications of the words are mostly between a few hundred sentences, which is the "Lu" style of Tibet. The meaning of the words is easy to understand, the words and sentences are catchy, the melody of the singing is not strong, and most of them are chanting. When singing, the tone is low, the voice is small, and the voice is loud and bright at the climax, which is very regular. Generally divided into two groups of men and women, each group has a single mouth, there are also two men talking to each other. Performances are mostly standing face-to-face rap, while waving wine utensils such as silver cups, silver bowls, etc., or waving auspicious colored arrows. If there are more people taking part in rap, the male and female groups stand on both sides and face each other. Generally, the male group rap first and then the female group rap. Its rap language is simple and smooth, not just floating words and colorful words, the structure is laid out and wide, not empty and vague, full of rich life flavor, at the same time, the rap performance is funny and humorous, gag, laugh with each other, the content reflected is rich and colorful, there are narration of history, praise of heroes, blessing of life, respect for elders, praise of mountains and rivers, there are also praise and criticism of specific people and things.
10. Tibetan crosstalk
Tibetan cross talk is a new variety of folk art developed by the fusion of Han cross talk and the long-standing Tibetan tradition of telling jokes and comedy buffoons. In 1959, Tibet quelled the rebellion and carried out a vigorous democratic reform movement. In order to publicize the principles and policies of the Communist Party of China, the propaganda team of Dongcheng District of Lhasa learned and learned from the characteristics of mainland crosstalk art on the basis of the rich connotation of Tibetan language and the traditional Tibetan "Xikai Ba" (I. e., amused) performance tradition, since then, this art form has been welcomed by the Tibetan people and spread rapidly on the ancient Tibetan plateau.
The majority of Tibetan rap art is single, double and multi-person performances. Its performance form can be summarized into several types such as rap, singing and speaking. There are some kinds of rap songs, such as Zhonglu (story rap), Ling Zhong (Gesar rap), Tibetan crosstalk, Zhiga, Zha Nian playing and singing, Bai (will be strong), Xia (duet singing), etc. The type of singing is mainly singing, with a few spoken and connected lyrics, such as Gulu and Lamamani. In the category of rap and singing, there are different forms of performance. The types of songs in the form of standing singing include saying and singing. Props are used to perform in combination with body movements. They integrate saying, singing and doing, such as folding and singing, Tibetan crosstalk, Zha Nian playing and singing, Bai and Xia. The rap category that combines sitting singing or sitting singing with standing singing includes Lama Mani, Ling Zhong, Zhonglu, etc. There are also standing and walking performances of rap, such as folding, Tibetan crosstalk and so on. The kind of music is only spoken but not sung, and the words are basically rhyme styles, such as greetings. However, in the rap category, there are all kinds of songs in the rhyme style, such as fold ga, there are also rhyme style and prose style, such as Zhonglu, Ling Zhong, Lama Mani, Tibetan crosstalk, etc.
The performing art of Tibetan rap is rarely mentioned in the ancient books of the past dynasties, and the earliest text seen so far is the record of the King's Legacy in the "Five Legacies" discovered by Wujianlingba in the 13th century: "When the unique monarch Nie Chizanpu lived, there were fairy religions (referring to Bon), rap stories and riddle stories." In the 14th century, the book "Ming Jian of the Tibetan royal lineage" by the Sakya monk Sonangjianzan said after expounding the characteristics of the Bon religion introduced from Xiangxiong: "All people (Bon Christians)" beat the tambourine, and the rap artists dominated and manipulated it.
In the past, in Tibetan areas, mobile singing was mostly performed in rural areas, grasslands or urban streets, family weddings, festival gatherings, and trade fairs. Sometimes by the noble officials and temple monks invited into the manor residence, monastery singing. During the Republic of China, some tunes entered teahouses or taverns to sing. Especially after the establishment of the People's Republic of China and the peaceful liberation of Tibet, rap art was officially put on the stage. The improvement of performance venues and the introduction and influence of Han Quyi have brought about the development of performing arts and performance forms. The number of people participating in the performance has grown from one or two to many, and the form of performance has grown from sitting, standing and walking singing to table singing, such as Zhonglu's "The Story of Niqu Sambu"; The way of rap has also expanded from single rap and duet to backup singing, alternate rap, multiple rap and group rap. Some physical movements that meet the needs of the plot have been added to the performance, such as Zhiga, Ling Zhong, Zha Nian playing and singing, Lama Mani, etc.
In the process of its long-term development, Tibetan rap art performances have been continuously enriched and improved by artists of past dynasties who actively learn from, absorb and integrate various sister arts, including other fraternal folk arts and other art forms. The reference is mainly around the national opera, folk music, dance and so on. Among them, the most significant mutual influence is the national opera, mainly Tibetan opera. Such as Lama Mani, Ling Zhong, Zhiga, Tibetan cross talk, Gulu, Bai, Xia, Zhu Song praise, etc., and Tibetan opera for mutual reference, absorption and blending development. Especially since the peaceful liberation of Tibet, on the one hand, Han folk arts such as cross talk and allegro were introduced into Tibet, which were absorbed, applied and developed by Tibetan artists, and evolved into Tibetan cross talk and Tibetan allegro; on the other hand, the new generation of rappers also The vocal methods and performance skills of song singing are combined with the singing of traditional rap, and some performance techniques in drama, opera, dance drama, folk dance and other arts are also used. This kind of reference and absorption enriches the expressive force of performing arts. Tibetan rap art not only has the general characteristics of traditional folk art performances, such as one person explaining rap or one playing multiple roles, in and out, virtual and real, according to the combination of this performance and impromptu performance, etc., but also has Tibetan ethnic and local characteristics. It is mainly reflected in the nationalization and localization of language use and music singing. The local languages of the Tibetan ethnic group are also more complicated. Only in Tibet, there are not only the three major dialects of Wei-Zang, Khampa, and Amdo, but also their own dialects and local languages in the same dialect area. The articulation and biting of rappers often highlight the local dialect voice. In terms of music, some rap classes developed from Tibetan folk songs, custom songs and religious music, such as Lama Mani, Zhiga, Zhonglu, Lingzhong, Gulu, Zhannian playing and singing, etc., reflect not only the strong religious characteristics, but also the local colors of Tibetan areas. When some actors sang, they mostly absorbed the singing and playing styles of local folk songs, pastoral songs, labor songs and dances, religious instrumental music and folk instrumental music, and also absorbed the nourishment of folk songs, religious music and local operas (Tibetan operas) in their singing and using the cavity, seeking to suit the tastes of local audiences. Even a small number of songs flowing into the mainland, such as Tibetan crosstalk and Tibetan allegro, have formed a strong and distinctive national style characteristics through the creation and development of the nationalization and localization of Tibetan rappers.
There are many types of Tibetan rap art, and the voice is complex. Each type of music has different performance styles due to its popular region, singing content, performance form, and influence. For example, Lamas Mani and Gulu, because the content of singing is mostly Buddhist scripture stories or Buddhist tenets and doctrines, their performance style is quite solemn, solemn and mysterious; Zha Nian's performance art of playing and folding is obviously relaxed and lively, witty and interesting; Zhonglu, Lingzhong and Tibetan crosstalk reflect many long stories or vast real life, their artistic performances are also rich and colorful, both rough and exciting, there are also soft and delicate, warm and cheerful, and more affectionate and lingering. A variety of different artistic styles constitute the diversity of Tibetan rap performances.
The performance forms and types of Tibetan singing are generally three types: sitting singing, standing singing and walking singing. In addition, after some kinds of songs enter the stage, they are often used flexibly and designed freely in terms of the arrangement of the number of actors, the treatment of positions and postures, and the stage scheduling, resulting in some relatively special performance forms. For example, in addition to single-person standing singing, there are also forms of group singing, group singing, standing and sitting, group playing, group jumping, etc. There are many actors, actresses, or actors and actresses, or actors and actresses, each standing, holding a zunianqin, all or each taking turns, or two or three taking turns playing, singing and dancing. The group of singers, many actors, or many actresses, or many actors and actresses, all sitting, holding the zannian piano, all or each taking turns, or each two or three taking turns, all playing and singing by themselves, occasionally interspersed with small performance movements with feet and hands. Standing and sitting combined with group singing, playing and dancing, a row of actresses sitting, a row of male actors standing behind the actresses, all playing, singing and dancing at the same time, or men and women take turns to play and dance in groups. Standing singers sing while playing and making movements, and take a small formation to arrange certain pictures to form a performance form of singing and dancing. Another example is Ling Zhong, where five or six male actors wear the helmets and armor of King Gesar and his generals. Some of them play the leading role of King Gesar. Other actors or bands sitting on one side of the stage accompany them to sing. While explaining the plot, the actors play the stage and perform around. Some of them play against each other.
Sitting and performing like Lama Mani. Folk rap artists go to each place, first choose the ideal place for rap, such as under the big tree at the head of the village, the gate of the temple, or in front of the wheat stack in the wheat field, etc., then spread out and hang the story thangka painting to be rap today, and arrange the lamp, water supply, offerings, etc. in front of the Bodhisattva statue painted in the center of the thangka painting. After the preparations for rap are ready, the conch will be blown first to inform and attract the audience. When the expected number of people gathered around, the artist himself will sit on the floor on one side of the thangka painting, holding a thin iron bar, lighting the characters on the thangka painting and starting to rap. Its singing melody comes from chanting tunes, like saying like reciting, like chanting like singing, without accompaniment, and the music fluctuates little. In the middle of the rap story, the six-character mantra "Mani" is repeatedly sung ". When rapping Zhonglu, artists sit on the floor, often doing household chores such as twisting wool in their hands. When singing Guru, the eminent monk Dade usually sits on the card pad and watches the scriptures sing, accompanied by shaking, and its music melody is also the chanting tune. When rapping Lingzhong, there was a preparation stage at first. God taught artists to dial beads, close their eyes and sit quietly, let their thoughts focus on Gesar, and then began to pray. Some artists hang Gesar Thangka first and simmer mulberry in front of Thangka. Some artists wear special Gesar hats first, believing that Gesar stories will naturally fall into their minds. Some artists hold their hats with their left hands and give directions with their right hands before rap, rap introduces the origin, shape, accessories and symbolic meaning of the hat, and then wears it on the head to start the epic rap story. Chanting artists should first spread out the text of Gesar's rap scriptures. Yuan Guang artists should first set up an altar to welcome the oracle "Yongzhuma" and use bronze mirrors to see the scriptures of Gesar's story and rap. Zha Nian playing and singing, Lama Mani, etc., have also developed into many groups of people sitting and singing. At the same time, they have also developed the forms of standing singing, walking singing and table singing.
In these forms of sitting and singing, performers mainly portray characters and express stories with facial expressions in the language, tone, singing, emotion, rhythm, ritual, etc. of rap, thus attracting and infecting the audience, and sometimes appropriately cooperating with a small amount of physical movements. Musical instruments mainly play the role of accompaniment, and also use hands to beat the rhythm and render the atmosphere. A few musical instruments of rap art can also be used as props, such as Gulu's drum.
In short, Tibetan rap art is a traditional national art treasure. Understanding its historical evolution will help to better develop the Quyi cause in our region.
Since the outbreak of the epidemic in Tibet on August 7, 2022, a large number of tourists from Tibet to Yunnan have entered Shangri-La from National Highway 214. The People's Government of Diqing Prefecture has issued a series of relevant policies and measures and actively responded. Medical staff, police and other front-line personnel stick to the front line, have been involved in the "war of resistance" of the epidemic without gunpowder smoke, and jointly participate in dealing with a major public health security incident faced by mankind.