Overview of Tibetan History
A large number of research results in many disciplines such as genetics, archaeology, history, and linguistics show that: Han and Tibetans share a common ancestor; many prehistoric cultures in Tibet are closely related to the Chinese culture of the same period; the Tibetan Plateau and the inland The economy, culture and politics have always maintained close relations, and Tibet has been an inseparable part of China since ancient times.
The Tibetans have a long history, originating from an agricultural tribe in the central region of the Yarlung Zangbo River Basin. According to archaeological discoveries, as early as more than 4000 years ago, Tibetan ancestors lived and multiplied in the Yarlung Zangbo River basin. According to Chinese historical records, Tibetans belonged to a branch of the Western Qiang people during the Han Dynasty. Like many ancestors who experienced the Stone Age, the Tibetan ancestors first went through the stages of social gathering and hunting, and gradually learned to raise and farm. The Tibetan ancestors in the Yalong area on the south bank of the Yarlung Zangbo River were later divided into six tribes, namely, the Six Yaks. In the 6th century AD, the leader of the Yalon tribe became the leader of the tribal alliance and was known as the king (Tibetan voice "Zanpu"). At this time has entered the slavery society.
7th-12th century AD
At the beginning of the 7th century, Chinese history entered a new stage. The Tang Dynasty (618-907) established a strong unified regime, ending more than 300 years of chaos and division in the Central Plains. At the same time, the Tibetan national hero Songtsen Gambo annexed more than 10 tribes and tribes, realized unification on the Tibetan plateau, and formally established the Tubo Dynasty, which was the capital of Luo Sa (once written, it is now Lhasa). During the reign of Songtsen Gampo, he was determined to repair the Tang court and absorb the advanced production technology and political and cultural achievements of the Tang Dynasty. He twice sent ministers to the Tang court to propose marriage, in 641 AD married Tang Taizong's daughter Princess Wencheng. Songtsen Gampo also introduced production technologies such as wine making, milling, paper and ink from the Tang Dynasty, sent aristocratic children to Chang'an (now Xi'an) to study poetry and calligraphy, and hired Han literati to join the Tibetans to represent the Tang Dynasty. Maintained friendly relations in terms of politics, economy, and culture. Tang Gaozong named Songzan Ganbu as "a commandant of the attached horse" and "the king of Xihai County", and later named "King of Bin". Songtsen Gampo established the "niece friendship" between Tubo and the Tang Dynasty for more than 200 years ".
In 710 A. D., Princess Jincheng of Tang brought tens of thousands of embroidered brocades, a variety of technical bookcases and a variety of artifacts that should be used into Tibet, and married Tubo King Chide Zuzan. After entering Tibet, Princess Jincheng supported Buddhist monks in Yutian (now in Xinjiang) and other places to build temples to translate scriptures, and asked the Tang Dynasty for classics such as Mao Shi, Book of Rites, Zuo Zhuan, and Selected Works. In 821 A. D., Tubo Wang Chire Ba Jin sent his staff to Chang 'an three times to request the alliance. Tang Muzong ordered the prime minister and other officials to hold a grand alliance ceremony with Tubo officials in the western suburbs of Chang'an. The following year, the Tang Dynasty sent Liu Yuanding and others to Tubo to find an alliance, and formed an alliance with Tubo monk Xiang Bo Chanbo and Da Xiang Shang Qi Xin Er and others in the eastern suburbs of Lhasa. This alliance was held in the first year (822) and second year (823) of Tang Changqing, known as "Changqing alliance" in history ". The two sides of the League reaffirmed the historical "friendship of" one family "and" one family "and discussed the future of" one country as one ". There are three stone carvings "Tang-Fan League Monument" (also called "Changqing League Monument" and "Niujiu League Monument", which were erected after the eighth League), one of which was erected in front of the Jokhang Temple in Lhasa. In the following 3. four hundred years, Tibetans had close ties with the Northern Song, Southern Song, Xixia, Liao, Jin and other regimes.
In 842 AD, the Tubo dynasty was divided and disintegrated due to internal strife among the royal family and the scuffle between the tribes and the border generals, resulting in the emergence of many local forces that were not under each other's control. They took on each other, conquered each other, and the war went on for 400 years. At the same time, from the 10th century to the 12th century AD, Tibetan Buddhism (also known as Lamaism) was accepted by all classes in Tibetan areas and gradually penetrated into all fields of Tibetan society. The upper class figures of Buddhism often closely combined with the local leaders and used each other to form a feudal system of the integration of politics and religion in Tibetan history.
Yuan Dynasty (1271-1368 AD)
In 1271, Kublai Khan of Mongolia designated the country as Yuan, and Wusi Zang (now central and western Tibet), Dugan and other places became part of the unified multi-ethnic Great Yuan Empire, and Tibet was officially brought into China since then. Under the direct jurisdiction of the central government.
After the Yuan Dynasty unified China, it adopted a series of far-reaching administrative measures based on the actual conditions in Tibetan areas:
-- For the first time, the General System Institute of Central Institutions (renamed Xuanzheng Institute in 1288) was set up to take charge of Buddhist affairs throughout the country and military and political affairs in Tibet and other places. The ambassador (official in charge) of the Xuanzhengyuan is generally held by the prime minister, and the deputy ambassador is held by a monk recommended by the emperor.
-- In Tibet, civilian households were checked, post stations were set up, taxes were collected, troops were stationed, officials were appointed, and the Yuan Dynasty criminal law and calendar were promulgated in Tibet.
-- Appointing Tibetan monks and laymen as senior officials from the central to local levels. The establishment of administrative agencies in Usizang and Dogan, as well as the appointment, removal, elevation, reward and punishment of officials, are all under the orders of the central government.
-- Division of the local administrative regions of Tibet. The central government of the Yuan Dynasty set up three independent missions in Tibetan areas, all of which were directly under the management of the Xuanzheng Institute. This is the "three districts" mentioned in Tibetan history books ". As far as the area of the present Tibet Autonomous Region is concerned, it was under the jurisdiction of two of the Xuanhua Department at that time-now Lhasa, Shannan, Xigaze, Ali and other places are under the jurisdiction of the Wusi Tibetan Xuanhua Department; the current Changdu area and the eastern part of the Nagqu area are under the jurisdiction of the Duogan Xuanhua Department. The Yuan Dynasty checked the household registration in Wusizang and other places, established errands, collected taxes, established post stations, stationed troops, and guarded the frontier. The Wuszang Xuancomfort Division is located in Saskah (now Sakah, Tibet), with 13 million households and several thousand households, and collects taxes. This division of the Yuan Dynasty became the basis for the subsequent evolution of the administrative divisions of Tibet.
Ming Dynasty (1368-1644)
In 1368 AD, the Ming Dynasty replaced the Yuan Dynasty and adopted a peaceful transition in the form of confiscating the old seal of the Yuan Dynasty and replacing the new seal of the Ming Dynasty, inheriting the national sovereignty over Tibet.
The Ming Dynasty did not follow the official system of the Yuan Dynasty, but established a unique system of conferring monks and officials. The representative political and religious leaders from all over the country were given different names in the Ming Dynasty, and they were given seals and seals. They were ordered to manage their respective places. The inheritance of their positions must be approved by the emperor, and all of them could go straight to the emperor.
In terms of administrative divisions and military and political institutions, the Ming Dynasty basically inherited the method of the Yuan Dynasty in Tibet. In the Yuan Dynasty, Wusizang Xuanwei Division, Dogan Xuanwei Division of the hometown, the Ming Dynasty set up Wusizang, Dogan two Wei command department and the Russian military and civilian marshal mansion. Later, Usizang and Duo Gan were upgraded to the command of the line, under which were the command of the department, the propaganda and comfort department, the recruitment department, the Wanhu government, the Qianhu Institute and other institutions. Officials of military and political institutions at all levels are appointed to the posts of local monks and lay chiefs. The appointment, dismissal and promotion of officials at all levels were directly decided by the Central Committee of the Ming Dynasty and issued letters of seal.
Qing Dynasty (1644-1911)
In 1644 AD, the Qing Dynasty established its capital in Beijing, and then unified China. The Qing Dynasty exercised sovereignty in Tibet in accordance with historical regulations. As long as the officials of the previous dynasty sent the printed letters of the old dynasty, they were granted the printed letters of the new dynasty, and their original status remained unchanged. In 1652, the fifth Dalai Lama of the Gelug Sect of Tibetan Buddhism was called to Beijing to meet Emperor Shunzhi. The following year, he was officially canonized by the Qing Dynasty; later, the fifth Panchen Lama was canonized by Emperor Kangxi. The titles of the Dalai Lama and the Panchen Erdeni and their political and religious status in Tibet were thus formally established, and since then the Dalai and Panchen had to be canonized by the central government.
On the basis of summing up the experience of the Yuan and Ming dynasties in governing Tibet, the Qing Dynasty made major and comprehensive adjustments in accordance with the actual situation and changes in the situation, such as: setting up a minister in Tibet to take charge of the whole Tibet; adjusting the political and religious management system in Tibet; giving the names of the Dalai Lama and the Panchen Erdeni, and establishing the principle that the decision-making power of Tibet's local foreign affairs and national defense borders should be vested in the central government; the boundary between present-day Tibet and Qinghai, Sichuan and Yunnan was demarcated; the jurisdiction and authority of the Dalai Lama and the Panchen Erdeni were defined, and the direct jurisdiction of the minister stationed in Tibet was divided, and so on.
Republic of China (1912-1949)
The 1911 Revolution overthrew the feudal monarchy and the following year established the Republic of China. The Provisional Constitution of the Republic of China clearly stipulates that Tibet is one of the 22 provinces of the Republic of China. Since then, the Constitution and other laws and regulations have clearly stipulated that Tibet is a part of the Republic of China.
In July 1912, the government of the Republic of China established the central agency for the management of Mongolian and Tibetan affairs-the Mongolian and Tibetan Affairs Bureau (renamed the Mongolian and Tibetan Academy in May 1914), and appointed the head of the central office in Tibet, the prime minister directly under the central government, and the regular Qing Dynasty minister in Tibet. In 1929, the Mongolian-Tibetan Institute was transformed into the Mongolian-Tibetan Committee. In April 1940, the Mongolian-Tibetan Committee set up an office in Lhasa as an agency of the central government in Tibet. The identification and sitting of the 14th Dalai Lama himself was also approved by the national government of the Republic of China at that time.
A large number of archival records during the period of the Republic of China prove that the Dalai Lama, the local government of Tibet and the Panchen Erdeni have all sent representatives to participate in the successive congresses, the highest organs of state power, the national deliberative bodies or the national assemblies during the period of the Republic of China. and were elected or appointed to various state offices to participate in the management of state affairs.
the People's Republic of China period
Peaceful Liberation and Democratic Reform in Tibet
On October 1, 1949, the the People's Republic of China was proclaimed. On the same day, the 10th Panchen Erdeni Chokyi Gyaltsen, one of the two living Buddhas of the Gelug Sect of Tibetan Buddhism, expressed his support for the Central People's Government and expressed his strong desire for the early liberation of Tibet.
On May 23, 1951, the "Agreement between the Central People's Government and the Local Government of Tibet on Measures for the Peaceful Liberation of Tibet" (referred to as the 17-Article Agreement) was signed in Beijing. After the signing of the agreement, the 14th Dalai Lama and the 10th Panchen Erdeni respectively called the Central Committee to express their support and determination to safeguard the unity of the sovereignty of the motherland. Under the 17-Article Agreement, Tibet was peacefully liberated.
In 1954, the Dalai Lama and Panchen Erdeni went to Beijing to participate in the First National People's Congress of the People's Republic of China. At this meeting, the Dalai Lama was elected as the vice chairman of the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress, and the Panchen Erdeni was elected as a member of the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress. On April 22, 1956, the Preparatory Committee of the Tibet Autonomous Region was established in Lhasa. The Dalai Lama is the chairman and the Panchen Lama is the first deputy chairman.
Democratic reform in Tibet is a principle laid down in the 17-Article Agreement. However, in Tibet in the middle of the 20th century, the feudal serfdom, which had been abolished by Europe for hundreds of years, was still regarded by the Tibetan serf class as a beautiful system that could not be changed. Therefore, the Central People's Government and the patriotic and progressive forces in Tibet have experienced sharp and complicated struggles with the upper echelons and conservative forces in Tibet on whether to implement the "17-Article Agreement. On March 10, 1959, in order to safeguard its vested interests, the reactionary serf-owning class in Tibet openly declared "Tibet independence" and launched a full-scale armed rebellion. On March 28, the State Council issued an order to dissolve the former local government of Tibet. The Preparatory Committee of the Tibet Autonomous Region shall exercise the functions and powers of the local government of Tibet, and the 10th Panchen Lama shall act as the director of the Preparatory Committee.
In June and September 1959, the Preparatory Committee of the Tibet Autonomous Region successively passed historic resolutions such as the "Resolution on Democratic Reform in Tibet" and the "Resolution on Abolishing Feudal Serf Ownership and Implementing Peasant Land Ownership". Mobilized the masses, implemented democratic reforms throughout the region, abolished feudal serf-owners' land ownership, and implemented farmers' land ownership. This basic task of democratic reform in line with the historical trend was completed at the end of 1961, and grass-roots people's political power was successively established in all counties, districts and townships in Tibet. In March 1962, 92% of the villages and towns in the whole region carried out grass-roots universal suffrage on the basis of peasant associations. From July to August 1965, the county-level elections were basically completed.
Preparation and Establishment of the Tibet Autonomous Region
An important content of the "17-Article Agreement" is: "In accordance with the ethnic policy of the Common Program of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference, under the unified leadership of the Central People's Government, the Tibetan people have the right to exercise regional ethnic autonomy." From the peaceful liberation of Tibet in 1951 to the establishment of the Preparatory Committee of the Tibet Autonomous Region in 1956, the Preparatory Committee was ordered to exercise the functions and powers of the local government of Tibet in 1959, and then to the formal establishment of the Tibet Autonomous Region in 1965, it took 14 years.
In November 1954, the Preparatory Group of the Preparatory Committee of the Tibet Autonomous Region was established. After two years of work, on April 22, 1956, the Preparatory Committee of the Tibet Autonomous Region was formally established in Lhasa. The Preparatory Committee is composed of 51 members from the Tibetan local government, the Panchen Lama Khenpo Conference Hall, the Qamdo Local People's Liberation Committee, representatives of the central government and other parties. The Dalai Lama is the chairman and the Panchen Lama is the first deputy chairman.
With regard to the old regime in Tibet, the central authorities have always adhered to the policy of peaceful reform, organically combining the mobilization of the masses from the bottom up with peaceful consultations from the top down. In accordance with this policy, the Preparatory Committee strived to transform the original Tibetan local regime into a people's regime in a peaceful manner. A large number of officials from the old regime were absorbed and corresponding positions were arranged. However, a small number of reactionaries among the upper rulers repeatedly created trouble and opposed the democratic reform, and finally launched an armed rebellion on March 10, 1959. With the failure of the rebellion, the Dalai Lama fled to India, and the Preparatory Committee of the autonomous region began to exercise the functions and powers of the local government of Tibet. At that time, the central government only appointed the Panchen Lama as acting chairman of the Preparatory Committee, leaving an opportunity for the Dalai Lama to return.
In the following years, democratic reforms in Tibet, the establishment of people's political power at all levels, and the training of cadres were vigorously carried out. On the basis of the basic completion of democratic reform and the general establishment of county people's governments and grass-roots political power, on September 1, 1965, the first session of the first people's Congress of the Tibet Autonomous Region was solemnly held in Lhasa, and the Tibet Autonomous Region was officially established. The system of people's congresses, the system of regional ethnic autonomy, and the system of political consultation and democratic supervision have been fully established in Tibet.
Since the outbreak of the epidemic in Tibet on August 7, 2022, a large number of tourists from Tibet to Yunnan have entered Shangri-La from National Highway 214. The People's Government of Diqing Prefecture has issued a series of relevant policies and measures and actively responded. Medical staff, police and other front-line personnel stick to the front line, have been involved in the "war of resistance" of the epidemic without gunpowder smoke, and jointly participate in dealing with a major public health security incident faced by mankind.