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Overview of Tibetan History

  • Categories:Ethnic History
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  • Time of issue:2015-12-02 00:00
  • Views:3

(Summary description)A large number of research results in genetics, archaeology, history, linguistics and other disciplines show that the Han and Tibetan nationalities share the same ancestors; many prehistoric cultures in Tibet are closely related to the Chinese culture of the same period; the Tibetan Plateau has been closely related to the mainland in economic, cultural and political aspects, and Tibet has been since ancient times. China is an integral part. Tibetans have a long history and originated from an agricultural tribe in the central part of the Yarlung Zangbo River Basin. According to archaeological discoveries, as early as 4000 years ago, Tibetan ancestors lived and multiplied in the Yarlung Zangbo River Basin. According to Chinese historical records, Tibetans belonged to the Western Qiang in the Han Dynasty.

Overview of Tibetan History

(Summary description)A large number of research results in genetics, archaeology, history, linguistics and other disciplines show that the Han and Tibetan nationalities share the same ancestors; many prehistoric cultures in Tibet are closely related to the Chinese culture of the same period; the Tibetan Plateau has been closely related to the mainland in economic, cultural and political aspects, and Tibet has been since ancient times. China is an integral part. Tibetans have a long history and originated from an agricultural tribe in the central part of the Yarlung Zangbo River Basin. According to archaeological discoveries, as early as 4000 years ago, Tibetan ancestors lived and multiplied in the Yarlung Zangbo River Basin. According to Chinese historical records, Tibetans belonged to the Western Qiang in the Han Dynasty.

  • Categories:Ethnic History
  • Author:
  • Origin:
  • Time of issue:2015-12-02 00:00
  • Views:3
Information

A large number of research results in genetics, archaeology, history, linguistics and other disciplines show that the Han and Tibetan nationalities share the same ancestors; many prehistoric cultures in Tibet are closely related to the Chinese culture of the same period; the Tibetan Plateau has been closely related to the mainland in economic, cultural and political aspects, and Tibet has been since ancient times. China is an integral part.

Tibetans have a long history and originated from an agricultural tribe in the central part of the Yarlung Zangbo River Basin. According to archaeological discoveries, as early as 4000 years ago, Tibetan ancestors lived and multiplied in the Yarlung Zangbo River Basin. According to Chinese historical records, Tibetans belonged to the Western Qiang people in the Han Dynasty. Like many ancestors who lived through the Stone Age, the Tibetan ancestors first learned to raise and farm through the stages of community gathering and hunting. The Tibetan ancestors in Yalong area on the South Bank of the Yarlung Zangbo River were later divided into six tribes, namely the six yak tribes. In the 6th century AD, Yalong tribal leaders became leaders of tribal alliances, known as the King (Tibetan pronunciation "Zanpu"). By this time, it had entered the slavery society.

A.D. 7-12 Centuries

At the beginning of the 7th century, Chinese history entered a new stage. The Tang Dynasty (618-907) established a powerful unified regime, ending the chaotic and separatist situation in the Central Plains region for more than 300 years. At the same time, the Tibetan national hero Songzan Ganbu annexed more than 10 tribes and tribes to achieve unification in the Tibetan Plateau, formally established the Tubo Dynasty, and established the capital of Luo (a more logical description, that is, today's Lhasa). During Songzan Ganbu's reign, he devoted himself to improving the Tang Dynasty and absorbing the advanced production technology and political and cultural achievements of the Tang Dynasty. He sent ministers twice to the Tang court to propose marriage and married Princess Wencheng, the patriarchal daughter of Emperor Taizong of the Tang Dynasty, in 641 A.D. Songzan Ganbu also introduced liquor-making, grinding, paper and ink production technologies from the Tang Dynasty, sent noble children to Chang'an (now Xi'an) to study poetry, hired Han literati to join the Tibetan Dynasty, and maintained friendly relations with the Tang Dynasty in political, economic and cultural aspects. Tang Gaozong named Song Zan Ganbu "Captain Fumadu", "King of Xihai County", and later Jin became "King of Bin". Songzan Ganbu laid the foundation for the "nephew-uncle friendship" between Tubo and Tang Dynasty for more than 200 years.

In 710 AD, Princess Jincheng of the Tang Dynasty brought tens of thousands of embroidered brocades and satins, many kinds of technical bookboxes and corresponding utensils into Tibet, and married King Chidezuzan of Tubo. After her entry into Tibet, Princess Jincheng sponsored Buddhist monks from Tian (now in Xinjiang) and other places to translate Buddhist Scriptures into Tibetan temples. She also sought Mao Shi, Li Ji, Zuo Zhuan and Wen Xuan from the Tang Dynasty. In 821 AD, the Tubo King Chireba sent three times to Chang'an to ask for alliance. Tang Muzong ordered the prime minister and other officials to hold a grand ceremony with the officials of the Tubo League in the western suburbs of Chang'an. The following year, the Tang Dynasty sent Liu Yuanding and others to Tubo to seek alliance, and formed an alliance with Tubo monks, Xiangbo, and Da Xiangyi Xiner in the eastern suburbs of Lhasa. The meeting was held in the first year (822) and the second year (823) of Changqing in Tang Dynasty. It was historically known as the "Changqing Meeting Alliance". The two sides reiterated the "nephew-uncle friendship" of "one family" in history and discussed the future "unity of society". There are three stone inscriptions of the Tang and Tibetan Union Monuments (also known as the Changqing Union Monument and the Nephew Union Monument), one of which stands in front of the Dazhao Temple in Lhasa. During the following three or four hundred years, Tibetans had close ties with the regimes of Northern Song, Southern Song, Western Xia, Liao and Jin Dynasties.

In 842 AD, the Tubo Dynasty was divided and disintegrated by the civil strife among the Royal families, tribes and border generals, resulting in numerous local forces that did not belong to each other. They occupied one side, expelled each other and fought endlessly, which lasted for more than 400 years. At the same time, from the 10th century to the 12th century, Tibetan Buddhism (also known as Lamaism) was accepted by all strata in the Tibetan area, and gradually penetrated into all areas of Tibetan society. The top Buddhist figures were often closely combined with the local leaders and used each other, forming a feudal system of political and religious integration in Tibetan history.

Yuan Dynasty (1271-1368 AD)

In 1271, the Mongolian Khan Kublai Khan designated the country as the Yuan Dynasty. Wusizang (now the central, western and western parts of Tibet) and Duogan became part of a unified multi-ethnic grand empire. Since then, Tibet has been formally brought under the direct jurisdiction of the Central Government of China.

After the unification of China by the Yuan Dynasty, a series of far-reaching policy measures were adopted according to the actual situation in Tibetan areas.

—— For the first time, the General Institution of Central Institutions (renamed Xuanzheng Yuan in 1288) was set up to take charge of Buddhist affairs throughout the country and military affairs in Tibet and other places. The Minister of the Xuanzheng court (the official in charge) is usually concurrent with the prime minister and the deputy minister is a monk recommended by the emperor.

—— Investigate households, set up posts, collect taxes, stationed troops, appoint officials in Tibet, and promulgate the criminal law and calendar of the Yuan Dynasty in Tibet.

—— Appoint Tibetan monks and customs to serve as senior officials from the central government to the local government. The ruling of the administrative organs in Uzbekistan and Dugan, and the appointment, removal, promotion, reward and punishment of officials are all subject to the orders of the Central Committee.

—— To divide Tibet into local administrative regions. The Central Committee of the Yuan Dynasty set up three disparate propaganda envoys in Tibetan areas under the direct administration of the Xuanzheng Yuan, which is what the Tibetan historical books call the "Three Zones Kazakhstan". As far as the present Tibet Autonomous Region is concerned, at that time it was divided into two parts under the jurisdiction of Xuanxiu Divisions, namely, Jinlasa, Shannan, Xigaze, Ali, etc. and Wusi Tibetan Xuanxiu Divisions in the area of Jinchangdu and the eastern part of Naqu. It is true that the Yuan Dynasty checked the household registration in Wusi Tibet and other places.

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