Nixi Black Pottery
Introduction to 1.
Nixi is a Tibetan village in Shangri-La County, Yunnan Province. It is the only way of the ancient tea-horse road in the old days. It has a long history of pottery making here. The folk pottery making technology has been passed down from generation to generation for nearly a thousand years. Nixi black pottery is famous in Northwest Yunnan and all Tibetan areas, and is unique in Chinese black pottery. This kind of pottery is generous and beautiful, and is widely used in northern Yunnan and Tibetan areas of China. The cooked food has an authentic earthy flavor that modern cooking utensils cannot provide.
2. process characteristics
The production of black pottery is mainly divided into three steps, namely: material selection, processing and sintering. Black pottery material selection is to ensure the quality of the main link, the quality of processing depends on the producer's artistic accomplishment, the use of unique sintering process to make pottery black is the biggest feature of black pottery. The material of black pottery mainly contains: silicon oxide, aluminum oxide, iron oxide, titanium oxide, calcium oxide, magnesium oxide, potassium oxide, sodium oxide, manganese oxide and other elements. The larger proportions are silica and alumina, accounting for 66.32 and 14.90 percent, respectively.
From the numerous unearthed black pottery, most of the black pottery raw materials
It belongs to the pure and delicate red clay impacted by the Yellow River. Because of its good plasticity, it has been used until now. Red clay is mainly distributed in the Yellow River basin, the middle and lower reaches of the more delicate. Good pottery materials go through several processes such as cooling, wind freezing, washing and deposition. The collected red glue soil should have a special storage place. The first condition is: there is enough sunshine, the ground is higher than the surrounding area, and it should be exposed to the sun frequently. It is better to have the old mud that has been frozen by wind for more than 5 years. The wind-frozen red clay is not easy to crack and is easy to use. Most potters have such materials in good condition. When processing materials, it must be noted that all mud water must pass through the filter screen! First of all, pour the wind-frozen red glue soil into the mixing tank and then add water for detailed mixing. While mixing, continuously observe the density of the mud. If it is too large, it is difficult to pass through the filter screen, and more water is needed to dilute the mud. The mud passing through the filter flows into the sedimentation tank, so that the elutriation process of the whole material is completed until the sedimentation tank is full. Finally, cover with a screen to prevent dust from entering.
In order to ensure the quality of black pottery, the material must first be elutriated. The purpose of elutriation is to filter unnecessary impurities. Generally, 120# filter is used as the highest standard. The equipment for washing materials needs to have a cement pool 1 meter higher than the ground level, and its length and width can be determined according to the scale. Generally 2x 3 meters; There is a 5cm diameter round space at the bottom of the mud pool, mainly to facilitate the discharge of mud water. Next to the mud pool is a 15-meter-long and 1-meter-wide sedimentation pool, which is a special equipment covered with a window screen on which the stirred cement water is stored. All sedimentary mud will be turned into high-quality pottery-making materials here.
Nisi black pottery is made of a kind of red clay from Nisi Tangdui Village in Shangri-La. If Jianshui purple pottery is gentle and elegant and pleasing to the eye, then Nixi black pottery is like a Tibetan Han, unrestrained and bold. It is also made of red clay, and the clay burned from the red clay in Tangdui Village is ink black. Nissi black pottery is so mysterious, but the method of firing it is very simple. Pile the vessels made of red earth on the ground, spread straw on them, and light them with fire.
4. Artistic Value and Historical Inheritance
Nixi Tangdui Village is located in the northwest of Shangri-La County, between 27 degrees 51 seconds -28 degrees 51 seconds north latitude, 99 degrees 21 seconds -99 degrees 37 seconds east longitude, 2960 meters above sea level, 33 kilometers away from the county seat. Tangdui Village is located in the dry-hot valley zone, and its food crops are mainly highland barley, wheat, rice and potato. The village has a total population of more than 140 households and more than 700 people, all of whom are Tibetans. Among them, 22 households make black pottery. Most of the pottery production time is during slack farming. From the 1970 s to the 1990 s, cultural relics and archaeologists in our province successively excavated more than 300 sarcophagus tombs in Deqin Yongzhi, Nagu, Shidi, Nixi, Xingfu, Bendong and other places in Shangri-La County, and unearthed a large number of black pottery burial objects. Among them, the typical vessel Dajianer pottery jar unearthed with the black pottery jar currently fired by Nixi Tangdui has many similarities in terms of production process, vessel type and texture, which shows that during the Spring and Autumn and Warring States periods, the indigenous ancestors of Diqing had already mastered the skills of making and firing black pottery.
The black pottery craft in Tangdui Village, Nixi Township is not only a traditional handicraft with a long history, but also of high academic value. In recent years, with the increasing popularity of Shangri-La, more and more tourists have poured into Diqing, and the original ceramic industry in Tangdui Village has developed unprecedentedly. Shangri-La Nixi Black Pottery Co., Ltd. has been established in Nixi Township, and more than 10 black pottery sales outlets have been set up in Dukezong Ancient City and Dewei Road in Tangdui Village, making the products sold at home and abroad.
Sun Nuoqi Lin Yun is a senior folk craftsman in southern province. He has been learning art from his grandfather Rob Sizhu since he was 11 years old. He has been making clay pottery for 43 years. What makes Sun Nuoqi Lin most proud is his apprentice. Of the 136 families in Tangdui Village, more than 20 made clay pottery products, all of which they learned from him. There are also people from other places who come here. As long as they are willing to learn, he will teach them. The eldest son can make clay pottery, and Sun Nuo Qilin and the eldest son can make pottery and earn 10 thousands or 20 thousands a year. His family's products are as far away as the United States, Japan, Switzerland and India, and the largest orders are from Taiwan. In spite of this, he still sells mainly to nearby Tibetans, because he is not keen on producing handicrafts, or vases and ashtrays used by city people. Similarly, no matter what works of art outsiders regard his products as, Sun Nuoqilin just continues to do it according to the ancient local methods. One is that the price of his products is very cheap, that is, the price of daily necessities, and he did not raise the price because he is a celebrity, and the other is that his products still maintain a simple and rugged form, which is very rare. And in some hotels, tourist attractions to sell black pottery, expensive, and the pattern of modern complex, very kitsch.
Since the outbreak of the epidemic in Tibet on August 7, 2022, a large number of tourists from Tibet to Yunnan have entered Shangri-La from National Highway 214. The People's Government of Diqing Prefecture has issued a series of relevant policies and measures and actively responded. Medical staff, police and other front-line personnel stick to the front line, have been involved in the "war of resistance" of the epidemic without gunpowder smoke, and jointly participate in dealing with a major public health security incident faced by mankind.