Fritillaria is a perennial herb whose bulbs are used for medicinal purposes
Because of its shape, the "Herb Jing Jiji" said: "The shape is similar to Jushellfish", hence the name Fritillaria, can cough and phlegm, clear heat and disperse the work. Alias: diligent mother, bitter vegetable, bitter flower, empty grass, real medicine. Produced in Qinghai, Sichuan, Yunnan, Shaanxi Qinba Mountains, Gansu and other places.
Perennial herb, bulb conical, stem erect, 15-40cm high. Leaves 2-3 pairs, often opposite, few scattered or whorled at middle, lanceolate to linear, apex slightly curled or not curled, sessile.
Flower solitary, campanulate, pendulous, each flower with 3 narrowly shaped leaflike bracts, apex more or less bent into a hook. Tipes 6, usually purple, less greenish yellow, with purple spots or small squares, nectary fossa conspicuously convex to the north; capsule with 6 longitudinal wings. The flowering period is from May to July and the fruiting period is from August to October.
Fritillaria flat likes cold and humid environmental conditions, Fritillaria to well-drained, deep soil, loose, rich in humus sandy loam planting for good.
Classification by variety
According to the different varieties, it can be divided into three categories: Fritillaria, Fritillaria thunbergii and Fritillaria.
Fritillaria fritillaria is a treasure among fritillaria fritillaria. its price is the highest among all kinds of fritillaria, generally about 2500-5000 yuan per kilogram. the prices of green shellfish and pine shellfish in fritillaria fritillaria are quite different and have been on the rise (according to 2012). Fritillaria thunbergii is about 30 yuan per kilogram. Tubeimu is about 10 yuan per kilogram. (According to 2008)
Fritillaria fritillariae is the underground bulb of the perennial herbs of the lily family, such as black flower Fritillaria, curly leaf Fritillaria, Roche Fritillaria, Gansu Fritillaria, Sossae Fritillaria and so on. It is named because it is mainly produced in Sichuan, but it is produced in Tibet, Gansu, Xinjiang, North China and Northeast China.
Fritillaria fritillaria is slightly cold and sweet and bitter in taste. It has a strong effect of relieving cough and resolving phlegm. It enters the heart and lung longitude and has the function of moistening the lung. It is often used in the treatment of hot sputum, dry sputum, lung deficiency and cough, long cough, less phlegm and dryness, blood in sputum, cardiothoracic depression, lung atrophy, lung carbuncle and other diseases and other diseases. But is a cold phlegm, wet phlegm should be banned. There have been reports of allergies to Fritillaria, so people with allergies should use them with caution.
Modern pharmacological studies have confirmed that Fritillaria contains a variety of alkaloids such as fritillaria, fritillaria, and fritillaria has a variety of pharmacological effects such as lowering blood pressure and exciting the uterus.
There are several kinds of plant morphological sources of Fritillaria, namely Fritillaria fritillaria, dark purple Fritillaria, Fritillaria gansu and fritillaria.
The leaves of Fritillaria dark purple only below 1-2 pairs are opposite, all alternate or nearly opposite, apex not curly, leaflike bracts 1. Tepals dark purple, slightly yellow-checkered, nectary fossa inconspicuous. The wings on the fruit ribs are narrow. The flowering period is June and the fruit period is August.
Flavor: Fritillaria Cirrhosa bitter, sweet, slightly cold. Return to lung, heart meridians.
Functional indications: this product tastes bitter, slightly cold, belongs to the lung merges, and can be used to treat phlegm-heat, cough and asthma, and yellow thick phlegm. It is also sweet, so it is good at moistening the lung and relieving cough, treating cough with dry heat and less sticky phlegm, and deficiency syndromes such as yin deficiency and dryness, cough and cough caused by mutual accumulation of phlegm and heat. In addition, Fritillaria, cuttlefish bone and licorice are powder, namely Wubei powder, which is effective in the treatment of gastric ulcer.
Usage: Oral administration: 3-10g; Grind fine powder to take, 1-1.5g anti-aconitum each time. Cold and wet cough should not be used.
Fritillaria thunbergii is a subterranean bulb of the perennial herb Fritillaria thunbergii of the lily family. Because the main production in Zhejiang and named, so referred to as zhebei. Because of its origin in Zhejiang Xiangshan, it is also known as Elephant Fritillaria, referred to as Elephant Bei. Because of its shape is larger than that of fritillaria, it is also called fritillaria, or shellfish for short. In Jiangsu, Anhui, Hunan and other places are also produced.
Zhejiang shellfish taste bitter and cold, into the heart and lung meridians, functional detoxification, clinical often with yuan ginseng, oyster, dandelion, trichosanthin, forsythia, coix seed, houttuynia cordata, fresh reed root, Prunella vulgaris, seaweed, kelp, zedoary and other compatibility for the treatment of phlegm heat stagnation of lung cough and carbuncle poison swelling pain, scroat the disease; compatibility with cuttlefish bone, calcined corrugated, Baiji, Coptis chinensis, Evodia rutaecarpa, Zhuru, Pinellia ternata and other medicines can treat stomachache, acid reflux and heartburn.
Modern pharmacological studies have confirmed that Fritillaria thunbergii contains a variety of alkaloids such as Fritillaria thunbergii, Fritillaria thunbergii can relieve bronchial smooth muscle spasm, reduce bronchial mucosa secretion, expand the pupil, lower blood pressure, excited the uterus and other pharmacological effects.
It is a tuber of the perennial climbing plant pseudofritillary in the Cucurbitaceae family. The main production in Hebei, Shaanxi, Shanxi and other places. Tubeimu is cool and bitter in nature. It has the functions of clearing away heat and detoxification, reducing swelling and dispersing knots, eliminating carbuncle and discharging pus. It is often used in clinic with oysters, trichosanthin, coix seed, houttuynia cordata, saponin thorn, pangolin, Prunella vulgaris, seaweed, kelp, etc.
[taboo]: the above three kinds of Fritillaria commonly used amount is 6~12 grams, because of its anti Aconitum, it can not be used with Aconitum and its "brother" Tianxiong, aconite.
Xinjiang Fritillaria Ifritillaria
Pinyin name: Yibeimu
英文名：BULBUS FRITILLARIAE PALLIDIFLORAE
Book Page Number: 2000 Edition One -109
Xinjiang Fritillaria, is a kind of Fritillaria Bulbus. A valuable Chinese herbal medicine with the same name as Zhebei. Among them: Ili Fritillaria. Fritillaria. Beach Fritillaria and several other varieties, collectively known as Xinjiang Fritillaria. In addition to Tanbeixi, which was born on the beach, the other three species of fritillaries were mostly born on the grasslands and under the bushes. Ibe is mainly produced in Yining. Huocheng; Fergan Fritillaria is distributed in many parts of Xinjiang. Fritillaria laurel is mainly produced in Tacheng area. Beach Fritillaria is produced in Huocheng. Chabuchar.
As early as the Qing Dynasty, Xinjiang Fritillaria has been developed and utilized. At that time, Changji in northern Xinjiang. Qitai County is a distribution market, which is transported by camel through the northern line of the ancient Silk Road. Ma Tuo, exported to Tianjin and other ports, commonly known as "Gubei". Because the quantity is very small, the price is expensive.
In the past, most of the Fritillaria in Xinjiang were wild. In order to meet the needs of domestic health care and export, the medical research department began artificial cultivation experiments in the late 1950 s and achieved success. Fritillaria will continue to steadily increase production in the future.
This product is the dried bulb of the lily family plant Xinjiang Fritillaria Fritillaria walujewii Regel or Yili Fritillaria Fritill pallidiflora Schrenk. From May to July, dig, remove sediment, dry in the sun, and then go to fibrous roots and skins.
(1) this product powder is white, with starch grains as the main body. Xinjiang Fritillaria starch grains single grain broad oval, oval or shell-shaped, diameter 5~54 m, umbilical point point point, herringlike or short slit-like, layer pattern is obvious. Epidermal cells are rectangular, with microwave-like curvature of the vertical wall, and cells contain fine calcium oxalate crystals. Stomatal infinitive, accessory guard cells 4~6. Thread and ring-shaped conduit diameter 9 ~ 56μm. Yili Fritillaria starch grains are single-grain broad-ovate, triangular-ovate, shell-shaped or irregular round, with a diameter of about 60 μm, and the umbilical point is punctate, herringlike or cross-shaped. The diameter of the catheter is about 50 μm.
(2) Take 5g of this product powder, add 2ml of concentrated ammonia test solution and 20ml of chloroform, shake, place overnight, filter, evaporate the filtrate to dryness, add 0.5ml of chloroform to dissolve the residue, and use it as the test solution. In addition, 5g of the control medicine of ibeimus is taken, and the control medicine solution is made by the same method. Then take the reference substance of sibeimine and add chloroform to make a solution containing 0.5mg per 1ml as the reference substance solution. According to the thin layer chromatography (Appendix VI B) test, suck 2~4 μl of each of the above three solutions, respectively point them on the same silica gel G thin-layer plate prepared with 2% sodium hydroxide solution, and use the lower solution of chloroform-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (8:8:3:2) below 10 ℃ as developing agent, unfold, take out and dry, spray dilute bismuth potassium iodide test solution and sodium nitrite test solution in sequence. In the chromatogram of the test article, the same color spot is shown at the position corresponding to the chromatogram of the control medicinal material, and the same brown spot is shown at the position corresponding to the chromatogram of the control substance.
[sexual taste and meridians] bitter, sweet, slightly cold. Return to lung, heart meridians.
[Function and Atindications] Runfei, used for lung heat cough, dry cough with less phlegm, yin deficiency and cough
Blood in sputum.
[Usage and dosage] 3~9 grams.
[Note] should not be used with aconitum herbs.
[Storage] in a ventilated and dry place, moth-proof.
Fritillaria is a perennial herb of the lily family, which is used as medicine by bulb. Wuyang Fritillaria was identified by domestic pharmaceutical experts as a new species of Fritillaria in the lily family, and was published in the Chinese Journal of Plant Taxonomy in 1985. It is a famous local Chinese herbal medicine. Fritillaria, with white color is better, called "pearl shell". It is slightly cold in nature and sweet in taste. It mainly contains fritillin A, fritillin B and a neutral sterol component. It has the effect of moistening the lung. It is mainly used to treat exogenous cough, excessive qi and phlegm, vexation and vomiting blood, sore throat, epistaxis and breast inflammation caused by milk stasis. It can also stop bleeding and prolactin. Using Wuyang Fritillaria to make tea can cure cough, stop asthma and prolong life.
Wuyang cultivation of Fritillaria earlier history, high economic value. Before the founding of the People's Republic of China, the masses harvested 1 kilogram of beco in exchange for a piece of silver. Artificial cultivation was successful in 1958 and developed to more than 30 administrative villages in 4 townships, covering an area of about 105 mu, with an annual output of more than 10 tons of Fritillaria. The market sells well and demand exceeds supply.
Fritillaria pear material: 3 pears, 15 grams of fritillaria, 3 tablespoons of black sugar.
Practice: 1. After washing the pear, cut it sideways at the upper 1/4 of the pear, cover the upper part, and dig out the pear core for later use.
2. Mash the fritillaria into a powder, put it into 3 pears respectively, sprinkle the black sugar on the top, and cover the pear lid. 3. Put Fritillaria pears into a steamer, steam them for 1 hour and take them out. Eat pear juice and fruits together.
Stewed Pig Lung with Fritillaria
Production method: 1. Slice 250 grams of pig lung, add water, squeeze and wash the foam with your hands; peel off the pear and cut it into pieces. 2. Pig lung, Sydney and fritillary bulb are put into a casserole together, add rock sugar and water, and simmer for 3 hours.
Edible method: 1 times a day, with meals.
Angelica Beimu Kushen Pills Prescription: Angelica 15g, Fritillaria fritillaria powder 3g (sub-chong), Sophora flavescens 15g, Radix et Rhizoma 15g, Peucedanum 12g, White front 10g, Almond 10g, Peach kernel 10g, Coix seed 30g, mulberry skin 10g.
Usage and dosage: after taking the above 5 doses, cough and shortness of breath have been reduced by more than half, yellow thick phlegm and yellow greasy moss have been removed, and a total of 10 doses have been taken above. all symptoms disappear and the disease is cured.
Curative effect: the syndrome is phlegm heat accumulation in the lung, airway stasis, Xuanjiangsi. Zhiyi clearing heat and promoting lung, resolving phlegm and removing blood stasis.
Pictures of Fritillaria
Fritillaria is a commonly used expectorant cough medicine. It is the dried bulb of the lily family Fritillaria and Fritillaria thunbergii. Fritillaria is mainly produced in Sichuan, Yunnan, Gansu and other places in China; Fritillaria thunbergii is mainly produced in Zhejiang, Jiangsu, Anhui and other places in China.
Fritillaria taste bitter, sweet, slightly cold; Fritillaria thunbergii taste bitter, cold. Return to lung, heart meridians. It mainly treats hot phlegm cough, exogenous cough, yin deficiency cough, phlegm less pharynx dryness, phlegm yellow thick, lung carbuncle, breast carbuncle, carbuncle sore swelling poison, scrofula and other diseases. Modern pharmacological experiments have proved that Fritillaria has antitussive, antihypertensive, elevated blood sugar and other effects.
Medicated diet: fritillary fritillary fritillary root crystal sugar soup, fritillary fritillary root brewed pear.
Qiuli Ointment, Chuanbei Pipa Dew, Yangyin Qingfei Pills, Niuhuang Qingfei Powder, Tiedi Pills, Zhibao Pill, Shedan Chuanbei Capsule, Friedrinium officinalis Wipe Powder.
Pay attention to taboos
The spleen and stomach deficiency cold and cold phlegm, damp phlegm should be taken with caution. Anti-aconite.
1. "Herbal Sutra Collection Notes" 'Evil Peach Blossom. Gentiana macrophylla, alum stone, erbium. Anti-aconite.'
2. "Herbal Jing Shu" 'Cold and damp phlegm and phlegm fire cough, wet phlegm in the stomach nausea and vomiting, phlegm drink for cold and heat, spleen and stomach dampness phlegm for dizziness and phlegm headache, vomiting, stomach cold for discharge and disable.
Preference for planting
It is best to plant ibeimus in sandy loam soil with good drainage, deep soil layer, loose soil and rich humus. When using seeds for propagation, the seeds need to be mixed with wet sand stratification treatment and new high-fat film (can be mixed with seed coating agent) to repel underground diseases and insects, isolate virus infection, strengthen respiratory intensity and improve seed germination rate. Sprinkle the seeds evenly into the ditch, cover a thin layer of fine soil, slightly press and water to keep the soil moist.
After the emergence of timely loose soil weeding, and combined with top dressing, and spraying medicinal root Daling, so that leaf photosynthesis products (nutrients) to the root transport,
Improve the nutrient conversion rate and soil loosening capacity, so that the rapid expansion of rhizomes, medicinal content greatly increased. At the same time, it is necessary to strengthen the comprehensive control of diseases and insect pests, and spray new high-fat film to enhance the control effect. Before overwintering, spread overwintering fertilizer on the border surface to ensure safe overwintering and a bumper harvest in the coming year.
Key points of seed selection
Cultivation of bulbs is carried out from early to mid-June. Bulbs are first sorted into large, medium and small bulbs. Bulbs with a diameter of more than 0.8cm are large bulbs, 0.4-0.8cm are medium bulbs, and bulbs with a diameter of less than 0.4cm are small bulbs. After selection, they are planted according to large, medium and small respectively. The planting method is evenly spread, with a plant spacing of 2-3cm. Each 667 square meters requires 300kg of large bulbs, 200kg of medium bulbs and 100kg of small bulbs. After sowing, the soil is covered with 3cm, and the bed surface is flattened. The middle part is slightly higher to prevent water accumulation. Bulbs are basically planted in actual production, and few seeds are sown.
Growing Shade Crops
Fritillaria likes cold, cool and humid environmental conditions. After Fritillaria matures in early June, the weather enters a high temperature period. In order to prevent the sun from directly shining on the ground in summer, the ground temperature increases, and create favorable conditions for the differentiation and growth of new buds, shade crops are planted in time after sowing or after the old Fritillaria matures. The principle of choosing shade crops is that the shade is strong, the root system is less, the influence on the growth and development of fritillaria is small, it is not the parasite of fritillaria disease, but also can enhance soil fertility. Soybean and perilla seed crops were selected as shade crops in the producing areas.
The ground temperature of 2-4 ℃ flat Fritillaria can emerge, spraying new high-fat film, can prevent the infection of bacteria, improve the ability to resist natural disasters, improve the intensity of photosynthesis, protect the seedlings thrive. Seedling emerges earlier than weeds, weeds grow faster in the later stage, so as to avoid pulling big grass to hurt fritillaria and affect fritillaria growth. After the plant is mature and dead, it can be shoveled shallow once, subject to not hurting bulbs. Generally, fritillaria can be pulled twice during growth.
In order to ensure that nutrients can meet the physiological needs of root development, one capsule of medicinal material root Daling capsule can be added to every 100kg of liquid, stirred and dissolved, and then sprayed on the leaf surface to thicken the underground nutrient transport conduit, increase the nutrient transport amount, improve the nutrient conversion rate and soil loosening ability, rapidly expand the rhizome, greatly increase the content of effective substances, and achieve the desire of increasing yield and harvesting.
Rust, leaf back, petiole, stem base appear many brown spore group, serious disease when the early death of fritillaria. The control method is to strengthen the field management, remove the above-ground residues in time, and spray 1000 times of liquid methyl thiobazin with new lipid film before the onset of disease. Botrytis cinerea, water-soaked spots appear on the tips of leafy green leaves, withered and died in the later period, and control and control the new lipid film of glyoxylin sprayed 500 times of liquid.
Since the outbreak of the epidemic in Tibet on August 7, 2022, a large number of tourists from Tibet to Yunnan have entered Shangri-La from National Highway 214. The People's Government of Diqing Prefecture has issued a series of relevant policies and measures and actively responded. Medical staff, police and other front-line personnel stick to the front line, have been involved in the "war of resistance" of the epidemic without gunpowder smoke, and jointly participate in dealing with a major public health security incident faced by mankind.