The plateau ecological food-Tibetan food introduction
"Tibetan cuisine" is a general term for Tibetan cuisine, with a wide range of materials and unique characteristics. The representative ones are roasted sheep, beef, tsampa, butter tea and Qingke wine. The raw materials are beef, sheep, pig, chicken and other meat, as well as potatoes, radishes and other vegetables. The diet is mainly rice, noodles and highland barley. The taste is thick and fragrant, crisp, sweet and crisp, the seasoning is spicy and sour, the spices are reused, and the methods of roasting, frying, frying and boiling are commonly used.
Due to the extremely rich resources in Tibetan areas, Tibetan meals and feasts are mainly composed of matsutake roasted Tibetan chicken, cordyceps stewed duck, roasted Tibetan fragrant pig, Qinggang fungus roasted Tibetan fragrant pig, good steamed buns, buckwheat baked cakes, hand-held mutton, earthen sausage, tuba (Tibetan laba porridge), air-dried beef, yogurt, milk tea, cheese and other foods. In addition, Tibetan catering also integrates the flavors of all parts of the country. Common cuisines mainly include Sichuan cuisine, Cantonese cuisine, Shandong cuisine, etc., of which Sichuan cuisine is the most common.
The main raw material of Tibetan meal
The main raw materials for Tibetan meals are Zanba, butter tea, beef and mutton, highland barley wine, tea and different varieties of dairy products.
Zanba is the staple food of Tibetans, and its raw material is flour made from highland barley or peas after being fried. Zanba is rich in nutrition, delicious and hunger-resistant, easy to carry and easy to save. It is generally divided into four types: "Nai Yu" (highland barley tsampa), "loose fine" (peeled peas are fried and ground), "loose horse" (peas tsampa), and "white powder" (highland barley and peas are mixed and ground).
Ghee is extracted from milk. Pour the milk into a mixing barrel or special pottery, and stir it up and down or left and right hundreds of times to separate the oil and water. The light yellow fat that floats above is ghee. Then wrap it in a leather pocket, or use it at home, or sell it. The "Qinghai Specialty Flavor Guide" pointed out: "The fat content of ghee is as high as 80%-90%, and contains protein, calcium, phosphorus, iron, vitamin A, riboflavin, niacin and other ingredients. The heat produced by ghee in the human body can reach 4000 calories per kilogram. Therefore, it can be cold and hungry after eating. Because Tibetan people are located in the plateau, the climate is cold, this high-calorie food can enhance the ability to resist low temperature. After the butter is refined and boiled together with brick tea, you can make a strong butter tea.
Beef and mutton are important raw materials in Tibetan cuisine. The beef in the Tibetan meal is mainly plateau yak meat, while the mutton is mostly sheep meat. Yak meat color bright red, tender meat, delicious, low fat, high protein. People often say that the air-dried meat, refers to the dried beef and mutton. With the development of the times, the improvement of living standards and the changing needs of people's tastes, there are more and more types of air-dried meat, and various seasonings are put into the production. In addition to homemade, many food companies have also made different flavors of dried meat.
Highland barley wine is a daily drink for Tibetan compatriots. It is not only used to entertain guests, but also often drunk by family members. When they go out, they should fill the sheep's bladder or skin bag with wine and carry it in their arms for a rainy day. They can quench their thirst on the road and can also be used with Zanba to relieve hunger.
Drinking tea is also like eating, paying attention to growing up first and then young, and guest first and host second. There is a Tibetan proverb: "Even if you are an enemy, don't just pour a cup of tea", which shows that guests are taboo to drink only one cup of tea. When drinking tea, you should not drink it too fast or too fast. You should gently blow off the oil on the tea and drink it several times. You must not make a "whirring" sound. After drinking tea, a little tea should be left at the bottom of the bowl to show courtesy.
Origin of Tibetan Meal
The Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and its surrounding areas, that is, today's Tibet Autonomous Region and parts of Qinghai, Sichuan, Yunnan and Gansu, are the places where Tibetan people have lived and lived for generations. The unique natural landscape of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and the diligence and wisdom of the Tibetan people have nurtured a unique style of catering culture. In the unique living environment and long-term historical development process, the Tibetan people have accumulated rich dietary knowledge and formed unique cooking techniques in their contacts with surrounding areas, countries and nations. Whether it is from the type, or from the nutritional value of the world's attention.
The preparation method of Tibetan meal
There are many ways to make Tibetan food, such as boiling, roasting, steaming, frying, stewing, etc. The more unique foods are: "Xia Buqin" (raw meat sauce), which uses oil-free beef (such as the meat on the hind legs of yak, preferably without fat) as the raw material, chops it into sauce, mixes it with chili sauce, and adds a little pepper, salt water and wild garlic powder. The taste is delicious. "Zhuo Ma Zhe Si" (ginseng fruit rice) is a unique food. In addition to the usual dining table, it is indispensable for the New Year celebration ceremony, because it symbolizes auspiciousness.
Development of Tibetan Meal
With the continuous improvement of people's living standards, Tibetan food has been continuously improved while maintaining its traditional production methods, adapting to the tastes of different groups of people, and at the same time has cultural elements such as nutrition, taste, color and taste. While maintaining its own traditional characteristics, Tibetan food pays attention to "green" and "health care". Most of the main raw materials of Tibetan food come from pollution-free plateau areas, which are green food in the real sense; in addition, ginseng fruit and Cordyceps sinensis in the raw materials of Tibetan food have health care effects, which make Tibetan food "icing on the cake" and highlight its unique health care effect.
Since the outbreak of the epidemic in Tibet on August 7, 2022, a large number of tourists from Tibet to Yunnan have entered Shangri-La from National Highway 214. The People's Government of Diqing Prefecture has issued a series of relevant policies and measures and actively responded. Medical staff, police and other front-line personnel stick to the front line, have been involved in the "war of resistance" of the epidemic without gunpowder smoke, and jointly participate in dealing with a major public health security incident faced by mankind.